Many thanks to Jill for adding this to our site... when Wisconsin was just getting settled in the mid-late 1800s, there were several companies that would write books about the early pioneer settlers and the new developing counties.  This is one such book -- it contains a little bit of this and that... including some nice biographical sketches... enjoy your trip back through time to 1881 Shawano county.

History of Northern Wisconsin, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development, and resources; an extensive sketch of its counties, cities, towns and villages, their improvements, industries, manufactories; biographical sketches, portraits of prominent men and early settlers; views of county seats, etc. .. (1881)

Publisher: Chicago, Western Historical Company 1881


Shawano County is one of the extreme northeastern counties of the State, situated south and west of Oconto and Marinette counties. In early days, it was a portion of that great and unexhausted region of pine, which has proved the foundation of wealth to half the capitalists of Wisconsin. Much valuable timber land still remains along the banks of the Wolf and Embarrass rivers, but a majority of the logs cut find their way to the large mills at Oshkosh. There are a number of small mills still scattered through Shawano County, however. The soil varies from a rich black loam to the barren sand plains on the highlands of the Wolf. As a rule, when cleared of timber and cultivated, the land is productive. It is estimated that about sixty per cent of the county is still wooded—pine along the streams, hemlock, oak and hickory on the uplands. The territory embraces thirty-six townships and two Indian reservations—the Menomonee and Stockbridge. These tribes took possession of their reservations before the organization of the county and a brief sketch of their territories would not be out of place at this point.


Menomonee Reservation comprises eight and one-half townships, situated in the northern and northeastern part of the county. In 1848, the Government obtained the title to all lands held by the Menomonees in the State of Wisconsin. In 1852, they were removed to their reservation, which afterward extended into Shawano County. Its principal village is Keshena, which contains a number of stores and a saw and grist mill, the property of the Menomonees. The reservation contains 231,680 acres of land, much of it good farming and timber property. Considerable attention is paid to farming, and a commendable improvement in the condition of the people is noted. The population is 1,450. The Wolf River flows through the reservation from north to south, the old military road following the eastern bank for most of the way. Keshena is situated in the southern part, and many of its people, as well as those in other portions of the reservation are earnest supporters of school and church.

The Stockbridge Reservation is situated to the south west of the Menomonee Reserve, and includes but half a township—11,520 acres. The remainder of the original two townships, was sold to the General Government, for $200,000, and afterward became the town of Herman. The population, about 125, is concentrated, principally in the settlement on the Red River. The Stockbridges and a few Munsees were removed from Calumet County, in 1856. By referring to the history of that county, it will be seen that the tribe were granted citizenship, in 1843, and also that quite a powerful faction, called the Indian-party, were opposed to anything but tribal relations. Many of these located West of the Mississippi, in the Chippewa country. Afterward they desired to return to Wisconsin, but had not changed their minds in regard to citizenship.

The Government therefore purchased two townships of the Menomonees, in 1856, and there located the Stockbridges. The latter afterward sold to the Government, all but the half a township they now occupy. At present the Stockbridges are divided into the same two parties that agitated them in 1842-43, while they lived in Calumet County—the citizen's party and the Indian party.


The first settlement in Shawano County and the city of Shawano, dates from May, 1843, when Charles Wescott, a sturdy young New Yorker, became one of a party which set out from Green Bay, to build a sawmill, for Samuel Farnsworth. The mill was completed, this being the first improved water power on the Wolf River. The building was situated nearly upon the site of J. D. East's saw and grist mill. Mr. Wescott remained as the first permanent settler, operating the mill which was owned afterward by J. C. Lewis, for eight years. He located upon his present property in 1848, when his wife joined him. In the Fall of 1843, F. B. Moore, of Fond du Lac, became a two-thirds partner with Mr. Farnsworth, in the mill property and a general store was opened, so that when Mrs. Wescott and James and William Grimmer arrived in 1848, the settlement had commenced to take on the aspect, "promising.” Mr. Farnsworth had entered eighty acres of land, the first in the county. Philetus Sawyer and other lumbermen of Oshkosh were patronizing the little mill. The steamer "Manchester" was puffing up and down with supplies, and the firm of Farnsworth & Moore was happy. New settlers, therefore, they looked upon as interlopers, and it was only by using his position as against their authority, that Mr. Wescott managed to sell Mr. Grimmer enough lumber to build his house. This spirit went so far, that the owners of the property in 1851, refuse to allow any logs to be rafted to the market below. This so incensed a Red River lumberman, that he pitched one of the proprietors into the mill pond, ordered his men to break away the dam and his raft went through. Thereafter the monopolists were more accommodating. Prominent also in the annals of these early business days, were Philetus Sawyer and George Andrews, who owned at one time, nearly the entire site of the city of Shawano. Capt. William Powell, who established a trading post on the east side of the river in 1844, and operated it four or five years, and Strong & Co., at one time, owners of much of the pine property in Shawano, Joseph Gauthier, A. L. Koon, R. W. Lambert, and C. M. Upham, are names with which the early settlers are familiar. But the past of history, gradually and surely grows into the present, therefore the city of Shawano, as it is, comes up for dissection, and even while this task is being performed, the future of a more thriving life is making history of itself. 


Shawano County was organized by legislative act, February 16, 1853, and joined to Outagamie County for judicial purposes, the county seat being located on the southeast corner of Section 6, fraction of Section 7, east of Wolf River, in Township 26, Range 16 east. At the first election, held in November, 1853, at the "Shawano Mills House," occupied by Charles Wescott, forty-seven votes were cast, and Elias Murray, Charles D. Wescott and Elisha Alexander chosen Supervisors (the county consisting but of the town of Shawano); Julius A. Murray, Clerk of the Board; John Wiley, School Superintendent; J. A. Murray, Register of Deeds, and E. F. Sawyer, County Surveyor. In No­vember, 1855, by popular vote (eighty-four votes), it was resolved to locate the county seat at Shawano, after December 15. In January, 1856, the county was fairly organized for town purposes. The voters of the town of Richmond were to meet at Hiram Wescott's; those of the town of Waukechon, at James Semple's ; those of the town of Shawano, at the office of the County Clerk, E. F. Sawyer. The election, held in November, 1856, after full town and county organization had been effected, resulted as follows: A. B. Everts, Sheriff; T. R. Hiuld, District Attorney; William Grimmer, Coroner; Ogden Brooks, County Clerk; Julius A. Murray, Register of Deeds ; John Wiley, County Treasurer; Daniel Olmstead, Surveyor; S. Ryan, Jr., Clerk of the Court. Shawano County was fully organized for judicial purposes, January 1, 1861, and made a part of the Tenth Circuit, S. R. Cotton, Judge. Its present fine courthouse was erected in 1879-80, at a cost of $17,000. It is a two-story and basement structure, built of red brick, and makes quite an imposing and, certainly, a sightly appearance. The county officers, for 1881, are: Johm M. Schweers, Sheriff; August Koeppen, Treasurer ; D. E. Wescott, Clerk ; Ed. Sommers, Register of Deeds ; C. A. Rais-ler, Clerk of Court; K. M. Phillips, District Attorney ; H. Klosterman, County Judge; William Sommers, County Superintendent of Schools; J. H. Grimmer, Surveyor.

The encouraging prospects of the city and county of Shawano, in obtaining railroad communication through the Eastern Grand Trunk and a Clintonville extension of the Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western, have already been noted.

The county is drained in its western portions by the Embarrass, Red and West Wolf rivers, and by the Shioc, Oconto and Pensaukee, in the east. The Wolf River runs north and south through its central portion, and is navigable to Shawano. Streams flow in every direction, so that logs are easily floated to their destination. The travel of the county, however, is over the numerous roads that cut it from point to point. The bulk of the travel is over the roads from Green Bay and Clintonville. The old military road, which also passes from Shawano north toward Lake Superior, is also a great thoroughfare to and from the Menomonee Reservation.


Shawano, the county seat, is situated about two miles southwest of Lake Shawano, on the Wolf River. It contains a population of 900 people, who require only a railroad to be fashioned into most thriving prosperity. The railroad survey of the Eastern Grand Trunk, the proposed line between Chippewa Falls, Wausau and Oconto, is already on its way hitherward, and it is probable that the Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western will, erelong, make an extension from Clintonville.  The people of Shawano are greatly in favor of this latter undertaking.

Shawano is the center of supplies for a large district of Northeastern Wisconsin. Besides supplying an extensive lumbering district, it meets the demands of the Menomonee and Stockbridge reserves. The bulk of general trade is transacted by the solid firm of Upham & Russell, whose business runs up into the hundreds of thousands. With the building of railroads the limits of the city's trade will be extended. The beauties of her situation will be brought more to the general attention of travelers. Shawano Lake is already becoming known as a prime body of water for regattas, and, if pushed into notice, there is no reason why Shawano should not grow into quite a Summer resort. Although possessing one of the oldest water-powers on the Wolf River, the lumber industries of the city have virtually died out, with the clearing away of the surrounding forests.

In 1867, J. D. Kast established his grist mill in connection with his planing mill. It has three run of stone. He is also building a grain elevator. The old planing mill, owned by E. F. Sawyer, is not at present in operation. M. Miller runs a small sawmill, with a capacity of about 8,000 feet daily.

Shawano was incorporated as a city March 12, 1874, and the provisions of the usual city charter went into effect. It is divided into two wards. The fire department is at present unorganized. The city school is under the management of L. D. Roberts, and has an average attendance of 140. The building is a frame structure, erected in 1870, its cost, with that of the property, being $3,000.

The press of the city and of the county is represented by the Shawano Journal, which was established in the month of January, 1859, by W. C. Tompkins, of Weyauwega. The first editor was A. G. Rockwell, of Oshkosh. The name for the first six months was The Venture, and when it was found to be a success its name was changed to the Journal. During the twenty-two years of its existence the paper has been in the possession of a large number of parties. Mr. Rockwell retained his place as editor, and subsequently as publisher, until 1868, various parties being associated with him. M. H. McCord then assumed control until 1874, when H. M. Loomer took possession until 1879, when it came into the hands of its present owners. As might be supposed, with its various changes of ownership, its political preferences have changed. Started as a Whig paper, afterward Republican, then Democratic, and now Independent, it has been the organ of almost every phase of political sentiment.

There are quite a number of churches and societies in Shawano. The Rev. Father Engelhart is the priest in charge of the Catholic Church, having also a mission at Keshena, in the Menomonee Indian reserve. The most flourishing Protestant church is the Methodist Episcopal, of which the pastor is Rev. E. B. L. Elder. It has a membership of about 70, and property valued at $3,000. The Lutherans worship in a small chapel under the care of Rev. E. F. Ebert. The Presbyterians have no church building, the Rev. J. H. R. Rogers being their pastor, while the Epis­copalians have no settled minister.

The Masons, Odd Fellows and Good Templars have organizations, but the Temple of Honor is the leading lodge, mustering a membership of over 100. In the Summer of 1881, the Temple built a tasteful hall, which is a credit to the city.

It will thus be seen that Shawano has all the advantages—natural and acquired—for the formation of an important interior city. The only thing lacking—a railroad—is coming. With that, a good farming country, much of which is in its immediate vicinity, will be made more directly tributary to it. 


H. H. ANDREWS, general merchandise, Shawano, was born and reared in Washington Co., N. Y. In 1866 he came to Keshena, and engaged in the mercantile business, in connection with the Indian post-tradership, to which he was soon after appointed, and controlled until 1879, when he opened the present business, which he has successfully conducted since.
ASA HICKS, Mayor of Shawano. The subject of our sketch was born and reared in Ashtabula Co., Ohio. In 1845 he went to Stephenson Co., Illinois, and, after a few years, returned to Ohio, only to come to Oshkosh, Wis., 1850, where he carried on the mercantile business till 1860, in the meantime prosecuting the lumbering industry, which he finally adopted in 1860. In 1865 he came to Shawano (which was incorporated as a city March 19, 1874) and has been actively identified with its developing industries since.
ARTHUR M. JONES, proprietor of Wescott House, Shawano, stands prominent as one of the enterprising business men of Shawano. Mr. Jones has chosen the present place for his trade, which, at the present, is very abundant in way of traveling men, lumbermen, pleasure-seekers, land-seekers and tourists. It is located in the most central part of the city, and has ample accommodations for both man and beast, as a beautiful stabling is in connection with the house. His motto is: reasonable terms, good accommodations, and strict attention to business. The traveling public will find it to their interest to give him a call.
JOHN DAVID KAST, flour milling, Shawano, is a native of Baden, Germany. In 1853 he came to Akron, Ohio, at the age of twenty-eight, where he carried on his trade of millwright and miller for a few years, after which he came to Portage Co., Wis., and followed his trade for five years. He then built a mill of his own in Waupaca County, in 1861, which he carried on till 1874, when it burned down. In the meantime he built his present mill, which, after the burning of his mill in Waupaca County, he has carried on exclusively since, enlarging upon it so as to run a turning lathe, planers and siding mill. In 1876 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly for this district, in which he took an active part in the educational improvement of the State. In 1853 he was married to Miss Margaret Beyer, in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. They have a family of two sons and three daughters.
HENRY KLOSTERMAN, County Judge of Shawano County, Shawano, was born and reared and educated in Oldenburg, Germany. In 1856 he came to this country, and after following his natural taste as machinist for three years, he came to Shawano and engaged in the land speculation, which he followed until 1868, when he was elected Register of Deeds, which office he held till 1872, when his people elected him their Judge, and have continued him in that honorable office since. In 1861 he was married to Miss Fink Ernstein. She was born in Mecklenburg, Germany. They have a family of one son, George H.   Mr. Klosterman is an able and efficient Judge, and an active citizen, devoted to the development of his adopted State and county.
AUGUST KOEPPEN, Treasurer of Shawano County, Shawano, was born and reared in Germany, and came to Dodge Co., Wis., in 1853, and took up the vocation of farming, but subsequently left it and traveled through the Southern States. In 1861, he enlisted in Co. D, 4th Wis. C., and after an active service, during which he was wounded, he was honorably discharged in 1862. After his services in the war, he turned his attention again to the agricultural industry, and came to Shawano, where he has been prominently identified since. In 1870, he was elected Circuit Court Clerk of his county for 1871-2. In 1879, he was elected County Treasurer and has been continued in office since. He has held a membership on the County Board from 1870 to 1878. In 1862, he was married to Miss Caroline Frailing, who was born in Germany and reared in Wisconsin. They have a family of two sons, Charles Emil and Herman August. Mr. Koeppen is one of the active, enterprising men of Shawano County.
JOSEPH MAURER, attorney and counselor-at-law, Shawano, was born, reared and educated in Prussia. In 1849, he came to Wisconsin, and after stopping about two years in Jefferson and Winnebago counties, he came to Shawano. In 1852, began as pioneer here and built the first house in the present corporate limits of Shawano, which still stands, the talisman of his early advent here. Mr. Maurer busied himself with the organization of the county, and was one of the first Peace Justices elected in the county, which office he held for seventeen years. Was the first County Judge of the county, elected in 1859, which he held for eight years. In 1871. the June term, he was admitted to the Bar of the State, since which time he has devoted his talents to the profession, in the meantime conducting agricultural operations on his homestead, where he now lives.
H. NABER, merchant, Shawano, is one of the enterprising business men of Shawano. Mr. Naber came to this country from Oldenburg, Germany, in 1848, in company with three others, with the view of prospecting it for settlement. In 1850, he returned to his country and reported favorably, whereupon, in 1851, quite a number of his country-people came and settled in the State. He stayed in Dodge County until 1858, when he came to Shawano and« opened a mercantile business, which he has successfully conducted since, in the meantime taking an active part in the development of the place. He represented his district in the State Assembly in 1864, '75 and '80; has also been Mayor of the city twice. He is at present the vice-president of the Great Northern Timber Belt Railroad, and managing director of the Eastern Division, which was chartered, March, 1881.
K. M. PHILLIPS, District Attorney for Shawano County, Shawano. Mr. Phillips was born in Otsego Co., N. Y., but was reared and educated in Calumet Co., Wis, After a thorough course of four years study in law, he was admitted to the Bar of the State, and came here and opened a practice, which was soon followed by his appointment to his present official position, 1873, to which the people have attested their confidence in his ability by electing him the incumbent for each consecutive term, save one, since.
CHARLES A. RAISLER, Clerk of the Circuit Court of Shawano County, was born in Prussia, 1848. In 1857, his people came to Wau­paca County, where he was reared and educated. In 1868, he came to Shawano and engaged in the cabinet making business, which he carried on until 1874, when he engaged in the mercantile business, which he car­ried on for three years. In 1874, he was elected to his present official position, which he held for two consecutive terms, until 1878, when he made a trip to the Pacific coast, visiting the States of California and Oregon, and Washington Territory, with the view of locating there, but concluded to return to his adopted State, where the people attested to their confidence in him by electing him, in 1880, for the terms 1881 and 1882.
J. M. ROBINSON, farmer and stock raiser, Sec. 6, Chairman of the Board, town of Richmond, came here from Essex Co., N. Y., 1855. In 1862. he responded to the call of patriotism, and enlisted in Co. I, 32d Wis. V. I., and remained in the service till the end of the war. Was honorably discharged, June 12, 1865. After his services in the war, he turned his attention to the lumbering industry here, and has successfully conducted it since. In 1870, he started the first livery business of Shawano, and was active in the political life of the place. Held the office of Sheriff for two years, having previously acted as Deputy ; was the first City Marshal of Shawano, and was extra active in that capacity. In 1870, he was married to Miss Phoebe Gorham, who was born in Green Bay.
H. C. RUSSELL - the junior member of the firm of Upham & Russell, is a native of Vermont, and came to Wisconsin about 1850, where, after a course of study in the high school of Racine, he began the practice of bookkeeping, which he prosecuted for a few years, when he entered upon the Chicago Board of Trade, where, after an active service upon the Board for two years, he engaged in the present, 1870. Has been successfully connected with it since.
CAPT. JOHN M. SCHWURS - Sheriff of Shawano County, was born and reared in Germany. In 1856, at the age of nineteen he came to Wisconsin and settled in Dodge County. When his country called her citizens to arms, he responded to the call and enlisted in Co. E, 3d Wis. V. I., May 2, 1861, as second sergeant. After an active service, he was honorably discharged as first lieutenant Co. A, 3d Wis. V. I. He however, reenlisted as veteran in the same company, retaining his rank, and remained in the service till the end of the war, retiring from the service with the rank of captain of Co. H. After his war services, he turned his attention to the tinsmithing business which he established here in 1865, and which he still conducts. In 1872, he was elected County Clerk of Shawano County, and filled the office for three consecutive terms. In 1880, he was elected to the Shrievalty of the county for the terms 1881-82. In 1864, he was married to Miss Theressa Krueger who was born in Germany. They have a family of two sons, John and Frank, and one daughter, Mary. The captain is an active and enterprising citizen and a reputable soldier, devoted to the development of his adopted state and county.
WILLIAM SOMMERS - County Superintendent of Schools, Shawano County, Shawano, was born in Germany, but was reared and educated in the schools of Sheboygan Co , Wis. Mr. Sommers was born a scholar, and although laboring under almost every disadvantage to develop his talent, he has eventually succeeded in establishing for himself his present reputation as an official and a position of no minor importance as a teacher. He was elected County Superintendent of this county in 1877, and the people have attested to their confidence in his ability by electing him for each consecutive term since. Mr. Sommers is one of the few men we meet who sees no discouragement in the object of his pursuit.
EDWARD SOMMERS, Register of Deeds, Shawano County, Shawano. Mr. Sommers was born and reared in Sheboygan Co., Wis., 1853. In 1870 he came here and engaged in the lumbering and milling business, which he followed a few years, after which he started a hotel and conducted it up to last year, in the meantime filling the present official position, to which he was elected in 1876, and to which the people have attested to his ability by continuing him in the office since. On May 29, 1874, he was married to Miss Anna Luecke, who was born in Germany. They have a family of two little girls, Emma and Ida.
UPHAM & RUSSELL, merchants, Shawano. Mr. Upham came here in 1858 with a small stock of assorted merchandise and began the mercantile business which today forms so important a part in the business interests here. After a series of minor changes in the management, Mr. H. C. Russell joined it in 1870, and the firm has since been known as above stated. Their trade in merchandise averages $200,000 per annum, patronized by the demands of the rapidly growing agricultural country surrounding, and the lumbermen of this vicinity, whose extensive interests demand a respectable position among their patrons. Mr. Upham is a native of Massachusetts, and came to this State in 1851. After pursuing a course of schooling and experience as clerk in the mercantile business in different parts of the State, he came here and has stood by this enterprise with the energy of the pioneer and has succeeded.
HIRAM WESCOTT, Sr.farmer and stock-raiser. Sec. 30, town of Richmond. Mr. Wescott was born and reared in St. Lawrence Co., N. York. In 1853, he came here from Allegany Co., N. Y.; for the first few years engaged in the lumbering and milling interests of this place. In 1855, he built the Wescott House, in Shawano (the first hotel there), and conducted it till 1871, when he moved on the farm, and has confined his energy to it principally since. In 1843, he was married to Miss Sarah A. Olmstead in Bradford Co., Penn.; she was born and reared in Delaware Co., N. J. They have a family of four sons and two daughters, all grown to man's and woman's estate. Mr. Wescott is one of the enterprising pioneer men of Shawano County.
CHARLES D. WESCOTT, farmer and stock-raiser, and lumberman, Sec. 23, town of Richmond, was born in St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. In 1843 he came to Menasha, and after a stay of two years, he came here and engaged in the lumbering and milling business, to which he devoted the first eight years of his life here ; he then added the agricultural industry to his list, and developed that industry here. He was the first Postmaster here, which he held up to 1860, and was active in the organization of the county. On Jan. 6, 1848, he was married to Miss Jane Drasbauch, who was born in Livingston Co., N. Y. They have a family of three sons and two daughters, all grown to man's and woman's estate. Mr. Wescott is the oldest pioneer man of the county, enterprising and active in the development of the many industries of the State and county.
DAYN E. WESCOTT, County Clerk of Shawano Co., Shawano, was born in Oshkosh, Dec. 11, 1850, and removed with his people here 1851; he received his education in the public schools of his county; at the age of twenty-one, he was elected as Register of Deeds for his county, and was continued in the incumbency for two terms, at the same time taking an interest in the abstract of title, insurance, and general land agency business, which he still conducts. In 1878, he was elected County Clerk, and has been continued in the office for each term since. In 1874, he was married to Miss Harriet E. Coon, in Friendship, N. Y. She was born and reared there. They have a family of two little boys, Edward Arthur and Bernard Dayn. Mr. Wescott is one of the active public men of Shawano County.


Hartland, Bonduel and Tigerton are quite thriving little settlements, of about 150 population. At Whitcomb, just above Tigerton, are the extensive coal kilns of the Chicago Rolling Mills, while at the settlement itself is the sawmill of Newbold & Livingston, lately built, which has a capacity of 12,000,000 feet per season. A grist mill is also run in connection with it. An establishment of business importance to the village is the veneer factory of Grundy & Brigham. Above Whitcomb is the station Wittenberg, which has a small sawmill, a Lutheran Church, Orphan Asylum and Seminary. These three stations are on the Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western line, which cuts through the southwestern part of the county on its way to Wausau. 

Hartland and Bonduel are on the stage route between Green Bay and Shawano, in the town of Hartland. At the former place, besides the general stores, is a sawmill, operated by A. J. Fullerton, and a saw and grist mill by C. Schmall. There is a sawmill near Bonduel, which place does a fair general trade. Several other mills are scattered at different points throughout the city, among which may be mentioned the sawmill, six miles southeast of Shawano, owned by A. K. Porter ; the grist mill in the town of Grant, operated by C. H. Buettner, and the grist mill at Pulcifer, in the town of Green Valley, run by the Oconto Company. 

The town of Green Valley was organized in 1873, W. G. Donaldson being the first Chairman. Pulcifer postoffice was established about the same time. 

In 1872, work was commenced by the Northwestern Improvement Company on a dam across the Oconto River on Government Lot, No. 3, in Section 6, for the purpose of moving and sluicing logs and timber. The dam was built by A. Winguist, who had previously homesteaded the land. It was his intention to build a sawmill, and one year later, in company with Charles A. Noyes and O. A. Risum, the mill was built. It was a wooden-wheel mill, and its capacity for making lumber very limited. Mr. Winguist also built a bridge across the river near the dam. 

O. A. Risum, formerly of Rock County, built a store on the above described lot, in the Spring of 1873, and has also kept the post-office there since. Starting in with a very small capital, the outlook for doing business was rather dark, as the roads (if such they could be called), were almost impassable, and the few families that had come to settle were poor; but by hard work and perseverance, Mr. Risum is now doing a prosperous business, increasing it with every year. As yet there is no other store, but one is contemplated before long. 

Messrs. Schwarz & Bergner, of Fort Howard, bought out the water-power, and erected, in the Winter of 1880, a gristmill, run by two of Leffel's newest improved water-wheels; they also put in a cockle separator, middlings puri­fier, two run of stones, and a pair of middlings stones. They started the mill in the Spring of 1881, and are doing good work. This mill is a great benefit to the farmers of this and surrounding country, who had often to go from fifteen to twenty-five miles to grind their grain. They contemplate improving the old sawmill with a new turbine wheel, circular saw and planer. 

A hotel is being built by Charles Poul, who is also building a blacksmith and wagon shop. 

In 1880, a surveying party, sent out by the Grand Trunk Railroad Company, ran a line across the Oconto River, about one and one-half miles north of Pulcifer post-office.

A mail is run twice a week from Oconto to Pulcifer, and return, and once a week from Shawano and return. A new mail route is contemplated from Black Creek to Pulcifer and return.


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