"History of Lincoln, Oneida, and Vilas Counties Wisconsin"

Compiled by George O.Jones, Norman S. McVean and Others. Printed in 1924 by H.C.Cooper. Jr. & Co., Minneapoli-Winona MN. ill. 787 pages. The first two hundred pages are history of the three counties, the remainder of the book is biographies.

Chapter IX: The City of Merrill

   The following pastors have served the church since its first organization: Rev. W. H. Barker, 1891-1892; Rev. Enoch Pickering, 1892-1900; Rev. A. L. Putnam, 1901-1902; Rev. J. W. Cabeen, 1902-1904; Rev. T. B. Hughes, 1904-1906; Rev. S. P. Mahoney, 1907-1908; Rev. F. D. Brown, 1908-1909; Rev. P. G. Van Zandt, 1910-1912; Rev. E. G. Hamley, 1912-1916; Rev. W. M. Hull, 1917-1918; and Rev. A. O. Protsman, who came in 1919 and is still serving. The present officers are: Mrs. L. B. Leavitts, clerk; Israel P. Putnam, treasurer; Mrs. Rose T. Putnam, treasurer of benevolences; Israel P. Putnam, Frank A. Albrecht, A. Hurlbutt, Alson Cottrell, Louis Hanson, Earl Naramore, and Frank A. Taylor, trustees' Israel P. Putnam, Frank A. Albrecht, and J. H. Hamlin, deacons; H. A. Cook: Sunday School superintendent; Ruth Protsman, pianist; Mrs. Rose T. Putnam, president Ladies' Aid Society; Alice Friday, president Young People's Society; and Mrs. Hazel Harding, chorister. Services are conducted not only in the city but at Irma, 14 miles north, where the church owns a chapel, and at Parrish, 27 miles northeast, where services are held in the school house, though it is hoped to have a chapel there soon. The present membership of the church of Merrill, including quite a number of non-resident members, totals a little over 200. The church has always been active in missionary work and has contributed liberally for denominational and other objects at home and abroad.

   The first Episcopal services in Merrill were held about 1890 by a clergyman stationed at Wausau; occasionally also services were held by a general missionary of the diocese. The first headquarters of the church were in the hall which is now used as a residence above the Boston Store on East Main Street. The first resident priest of the Merrill mission was Rev. Charles Trask Lewis, who was a graduate of Heidelberg University and whose presence in the midst of the rough and uncultured community which was Merrill in those early days was in singular contrast. He remained until 1897, and during his service the present church at Pier and Third Streets was erected. He was succeeded by Rev. Walter Gardner Blossom, whose marriage to a Merrill girl was the first wedding recorded in the annals of the church; the ceremony was performed by Dr. Gardner, president of the seminary at Nashotah. Father Blossom remained until about 1899, and from then until 1900 Father Lewis again served the congregation. In the latter year Rev. Frederick Barker came. Father Barker, who remained until his death in 1908, was perhaps the greatest priest that has ever served the parish. The devotion of his life to the service of mankind was very beautiful; he often went without food in order that others might eat, and after- conducting services at some outside charge he was sometimes compelled to pass the night on a bench in the church. He finally gave up his life in the service of the church; he had charge of the congregations at Tomahawk and Mosinee besides his Merrill charge, and one Sunday after conducting morning services here and riding a bicycle to Mosinee, where he held evening services he contracted a cold in returning to Merrill on a freight train through the cold night air after the violent exertion he had undergone; mastoiditis resulted and he died on the operating table before there was time to administer the sacraments. The next priest was Rev. James Martin Raker, a musician of rare ability; after serving during 1908 and 1909 he was succeeded by Rev. Webber, who was sent by the bishop as a temporary supply and who left in 1910. Rev. Hermann F. Ahrens came July 1, 1910 and remained until June 23, 1912; Rev. J. Russell Vaughan, the next priest, left in the fall of 1917 to become a lieutenant in the United States army, in which service in France he was wounded; he is remembered as having been a very genial man and was a member of the Rotary Club. Rev. Claude B. N. O. Reader, said to have been an English nobleman, next served temporarily, remaining until Easter in 1918. On Ascension Day in May of that year the order of St. Francis took charge of the Merrill church and the vicarage, which was erected under Father Barker's pastorate about 1905 and is a large structure built to serve the needs of the social activities of the church, was turned over to them as a monastary. Father Joseph Crookston, the superior of the order, is vicar of the parish and is well loved. The official name of the Merrill organization is the Church of the Ascension. The diocese is presided over by Bishop Reginald Heber Weller of Ford du Lac. Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Lutheran Augustana Synod was organized Oct. 6, 1891 by Rev. G. Juhlin of Westboro, Wis. The charter members of the congregation were as follows: Mr. and Mrs. C. Granholm; Mr. and Mrs. Matts Gunell; Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Erholm; Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Bjorklund; Mrs. Johanna Johnson; Mr. and Mrs. Wilhelm Josephson; Mr. and Mrs. Gust Edstrom; Mr. and Mrs. Abraham Anderson; Mrs. Noel; Mr. and Mrs. John Borg; Mr. and Mrs. Joel Carlson; and Mr. and Mrs. P. W. Gustavson. Of these 22 charter members the four families first named, Mrs. Johanna Johnson, and Mrs. Wilhelm Josephson are still members of the congregation. The first services were held in the church building still standing at the corner of Fourth and Logan streets, owned by Our Saviour's Lutheran Church, but a building was erected by the new congregation during the same year in which it was organized; this building, located at 100 Third Street, has since been enlarged and remodeled and at the present writing further improvements have just been completed. A parsonage was erected in 1900 and has also been enlarged and remodeled. The first pastor, Rev. G. Juhlin, was succeeded in 1893 by the Rev. Hogberg; Rev. J. T. Olander served from 1894 to 1896, and Rev. C. E. Cesander from 1897 to 1899; Rev. C. J. Maxcell came in 1900 and was followed in 1902 by Rev. John A. Carlstrom, who remained until 1908; Rev. A. E. Monell served from 1909 to 1911 and again from 1917 to 1922, Rev. S. P. Holmberg having filled the pulpit from 1912 to 1916; the present pastor, Rev. B. E. Walters, came in 1922. Among the prominent members of the church in the past might be mentioned John T. Erholm and wife, from Finland; John E. Borg, from Sweden; Amandus Johnson and wife Anna, from Aland; Joseph W. Johnson; Abraham Anderson and wife from Upsala, Sweden; Daniel Blomquist; and Mrs. Sophia Noel.

   The Scandinavian Emanuel Congregational Church here was organized in 1893 with the following charter members: Hans Hanson,. Anne Hanson, Olae Bjorke, Josephina Bjorke, Andrew Matson, Maren Matson, Theodor Benson, Elize Benson, Halvar Halvatson, Knut Hjelvik, and Christina Adegord. The first services were held in a hall located at Grand Avenue and Prospect Street, and were presided over by Rev. S. M. Andrewsen; in 1895 the church building erected by the Presbyterian congregation and formerly used by them was purchased and was moved to its present location on Genesee Street. Rev. Andrewsen was followed in 1900 by Rev. Oscar F. Kock, and after the latter left in 1902 the following pastors served in turn: B. Larson, 1903-04; Arvid Ostling, 1907-08; Thure Ahl-stedt, 1909-10; O. Jertberg, 1912-14; E. G. Ander, 1915-16; S. O. Carlson, 1917-19; Oscar G. Johnson, 1919-21; and J. Albert Peterson, the present pastor, who came May 14, 1921. Among the present members of the church may be mentioned the following: Mr. and Mrs. Nels Tofelt; Mr. and Mrs. David Anderson; Mrs. and Mrs. Axel Bjorkman; Ole Hermanson; Mr. and Mrs. John Lindstrom; Gotfred Lindstrom; B. J. Lagerbloom; Knut Hjelvik; Mr. and Mrs. Knut Hestad; Mr. and Mrs. Christian Shoblom; Mrs. Sarah Larson; and Miss Elizabeth Johnson.

   The various fraternal organizations are well represented in the city. The Masonic order has Virginia Falls Lodge No. 226, F. & A. M.; Merrill Chapter No. 72, Royal Arch Masons; and Pine Forest Chapter No. 96, O. E. S. St. Omer Comman-dery No. 19 is located at Wausau, and a number from Merrill are members of Bethesda White Shrine, also located at Wausau. The Eastern Star Chapter has contributed Mrs. Ella S. Smith as grand matron of the state; Mrs. Smith made a very excellent impression while serving in this capacity and was awarded a past grand matron's jewel. The Elks have established Merrill Lodge No. 696, B. P. O. E., and this lodge now has about 290 members. Jenny Lodge No. 32 and Hadassah Lodge No. 40, I. O. O. F., are becoming very active, the grand lodge of the state having recently given the districts more jurisdiction; the lodges at Antigo, Wausau, Rhinelander, Tomahawk and Merrill hold group meetings. The Oddfellows were probably the earliest fraternal order in the city, their lodge having been instituted Oct. 15, _881. The Knights of Columbus are represented by Merrill Council No. 1133, which intercommunicates with the Tomahawk, Rhinelander, Wausau, Stevens Point, and Wisconsin Rapids councils. Local units of other Catholic orders are: Merrill Branch No. 94; Catholic Knights of Wisconsin; and Holy Rosary Court No. 412 and St. Francis Court No. 502, Catholic Order of Foresters. Merrill Aerie No. 584, Fraternal Order of Eagles, has contributed a trustee to the grand lodge in the person of T. C. Olson; the ladies' auxiliary of the Eagles is No. 112. The Woodmen have Mulberry Camp No. 409, M. W. A.; Mary Ludington Camp No. 189, R. N. A., and Willow Camp No. 60, W. O. W. The Woodmen here were very active at one time; one of their drill teams travelled widely and brought home unusual honors. Other local units are: Merrill Lodge No. 374, Mystic Workers of the World; Markey Tent No. 30 of the Maccabees; Review No. 3, Women's Benefit Association of the Maccabees; Merrill Assembly No. 33, E. F. U.; United Colony No. 5, Beavers Reserve Fund Fraternity; Merrill Council No. 54, F. R. A.; Jenny Lodge No. 966, Modem Brotherhood of America; Lillian Lodge No. 24, Scandinavian American Fraternity; Merrill Verein No. 47, G. U. G. Germania; Merrill Liederkranz; and Deutscher Krieger Verein. In addition to these there are numerous other social, business, and community organizations. The Merrill Social & Sick Benefit Society is one of these and has an interesting history. It developed from the Sons of Herman Lodge, which be-came bankrupt in July of 1912. The 39 members of that lodge at the time of its dissolution decided to surrender their interests in the two-story brick building on Grand Avenue which had been owned by the lodge, and which was valued at $5,000, to the new organization. The incorporators of the new association were August Braun Sr., Mike Shape, August T. Heldt, and Richard Runke. The society has had a very successful career. The women's clubs of the city have done in-valuable work in promoting civic interests; of these, the Study Class, the Monday Club, and the Woman's Alliance are federated with the state organization. The Swatiska Club, an old settlers' organization, was started in 1905 when Mrs. Alice Fleming brought with her on her return from Arizona ten pins bearing the symbol of the club and presented them to ten ladies who associated with her in organizing the society. These pins were hand made by the Indians, who hammered them out. The club met every week at the homes of its members and made quilts, during the early years of its existence. It now meets on the birthdays of the members. The ten original members were as follows: Mrs. Alice Fleming, Mrs. Anna Bald. win, Mrs. Edith Himes, Mrs. Mary Woodlock, Mrs. Lydia Roche, Mrs. Lesetta Bosch, Mrs. Ida Corrill, Mrs. Elizabeth Kollock, Mrs. Ida Hubbard, and Mrs. Mattie Klauss; the three last named are now deceased.

   Lincoln Post No. 131 of the Grand Army of the Republic was organized in Merrill in 1884 and was granted a charter dated Jan. 24th of that year. There were 38 charter members, as follows: Spencer Wiley, David L. Anderson, John W. Bruce, H. E. Hathaway, L. LaCount, E. N. Torrey, H. W. Boyer, A. Dildine, J. R. Anderson, Theodore Compton, H. H. Chandler, Perry C. Hoff, Alex Baker, John Langhoff, J. F. Cannon, D.C. Smith, M. H. Bryant, A. A. Walker, J. B. Carr, George W. Langley, H. Walthers, N. L. Smith, Olaf Gilbert, James Hart, H. W. Wright, J. M. Brush, George P. Robinson, L. R. Manning, C. J. Brazee, C. H. Wal-lace, Val Henrich, Harry R. Allen, Philip Zipp, R. Bishop, C. C. Townsend, James Truax, L. C. Tyner, and James Hull. The charter was issued by Depart-ment Commander Philip Cheek, who died in 1912. J. W. Bruce was the first commander of the post and C. J. Brazee the first adjutant; the former resigned within a few months of the formation of the post, and J. R. Anderson was then made commander. The present officers are as follows: Lloyd Breck, commander; Barney Hurd, senior vice commander; F. A. Kendall, junior vice commander; W. H. Middleton, quartermaster; and D. D. Tarr, chaplain. The organization meets in the G. A. R. Hall, 205 Center St., the moving spirit in the erection of which building by the post was Epharaim Dagle.

   Lincoln Corps No. 40, Woman's Relief Corps, was organized in 1885. The Daughters of the American Revolution are not at present represented here; Merrill lodge No. 49, Sons of Veterans, however, is in active existence. Stone Camp No. 42, United Spanish War Veterans, was named in honor of Sergeant William H. Stone, who was born at Durand, Wis., on Easter Sunday, Apr. 5, 1874, and was killed in the Philippines on Easter Sunday, Apr. 15, 1900. He enlisted June 30, 1898, and was appointed a sergeant in Co. H., 45th U. S. Regi-ment of Infantry, Oct. 16, 1899. Richard J. Dawson of Merrill also lost his life in the service during this conflict; he had practiced law here until 1896 and was elected district attorney in that year; in the war with Spain he was commissioned a lieutenant and was later raised to the rank of captain, commanding Company F, 4th Regiment Wisconsin Volunteers when that organization went to Anniston, Ala. from Camp Douglas. At Anniston he was made judge advocate of the brigade court-martial. He died in the service Oct. 29, 1898.

   The Boy Scouts have a fine organization here which was established Jan. 27, 1921. There are now ten troops in Merrill and four outside troops (one at Gleason and three at Tomahawk) which are supported by the local organization. Edward Burns Post No. 46 of the American Legion was organized in 1919 with 15 charter; members. Its present membership is 163 and it has come to be a large factor in the civic life of the city. It is named in honor of one of the first men from the city to lose his life in the World War. The post has taken an active interest in securing good roads and schools for the community and has taken a very prominent part in promoting the new community building. The present officers are as follows: W. J. Cotey, commander; Edward Kluetz, vice commander; R. Matthies, adjutant; H. Henrich, financial officer; Julius Britt, chaplain; Gordon Cotter, trustee; Erwin Gruett, historian. Among the social activities of the post in the past may be men-tioned their picnic at Riverside Park, held Aug. 1, 1920; the program held in honor of the one-hundredth anniversary of the birth of U. S. Grant; three plays given by the post, the third on Nov. 30, 1922; and Fourth of July celebrations held in 1920, 1921, and 1922. In connection with the celebration of Independence Day in 1921 a homecoming was engineered by the post and was one of the greatest celebrations of this sort ever witnessed in the city. Ladies' Auxiliary was organized in 1921. The late Adjutant General Orlando Holway was a guest of the post about two weeks previous to his death in February of 1923.

   Battery C of the 120th Field Artillery, W. N. G., stationed at Merrill, was recognized Nov. 13, 1920. Its officers are Captain Harold A. Morgan and First Lieutenants Matthew G. Schmidt and Clarence A. Hartz. During the World War Merrill was represented by Troop H of the First Wis-consin Cavalry which was organized and captained by A. H. Smith, with F. L. Blixt as first lieutenant and R. G. Kraft second lieutenant. The troop was mo-bilized July 15, 1917 and left July 23 for Camp Douglas, where it remained until Aug. 17, 1917. It was then sent to Waco, Texas, arriving Aug. 20. About Oct. 1, 1917, it was transferred at Waco to Battery F. 120th Field Artillery, and as such it left New York for overseas duty March 3, 1918. Landing in England, it pro-ceeded to Camp Coetquidon in France and from there to the Saumur artillery school at Saumur, France, where it was made an artillery training battery and remained throughout the hostilities. After the training school was closed it rejoined the 32 Division artillery at Gondrecourt in March of 1919; it arrived in Boston in May of that year and was demobilized at Camp Grant, Ills.

   The city won an enviable record for loyalty and patriotism during this conflict, both at home and upon the field of action. The honor roll of those who gave up their lives in the service of their country at that time is as follows: Albert Achter-berg, Louis Albrecht, Adolph Baumann, Fred A. Berkland, William Berndsen, Henry Bronstedt, Edward Burns, Hugh Chandler, Arno Donner, Frank C. Gerholz, Emil Goetsch, Raymond Gould, Louis Jorgensen, E. Konke, Charles L. Keil, Emil G. Kleinschmidt, Arthur Lagerbloom, Wilfred Lehman, Frank Liberty, Erwin Manecke, Edw. C. Marks, Fred Martinson, Edw. Nienow, Frebert H. J. Phals, Paul Pophal, Guy Rice, Patrick J. Robarge, William Schaefer, Peter Schmidt, Lee Stange, Henry Herman Swanson, V. R. Switzel, Archie Tool, Gordon Tozer, Ed. Trimberger, Otto Wieland, Edmund Woeliner, Hoiram Woodruff, William Wurl, and Ed. J. York. In memory of these a beautiful granite cenotaph, the gift of A. H. Stange, is to be erected in the fall of 1923; a place has already been prepared for this monument in Soldiers' Memorial Park, which is located north of the Badger Opera House and is also a gift of Mr. Stange, he having purchased the property, wrecked the buildings thereon in order to make it suitable for the purpose intended, and donated it to the city in the fall of 1922. The cenotaph is to be constructed of Mount Airy granite, it will be triangular in shape with columns and piers rising from a stylobate of three steps, and with an urn in the sanctuary at the center. The three friezes will bear suitable inscriptions.

   The Lincoln County Chapter of the American Red Cross was organized in Merrill at a meeting held May 14, 1917. Mrs. F. E. Donoghue was largely in-strumental in bringing about the formation of the chapter and was made its vice chairman, L. N. Anson being the first chairman, Mrs. A. T. Curtis secretary, Mrs. George A. Foster treasurer, and Mrs. M. C. Porter financial secretary. The quarters of the chapter were first located in the Federal building and were later moved to the City Hall. This organization rendered invaluable service during the war, particularly through its home service section. The present officers are: Dr. W. H. Bayer, chairman; W. B. Chilsen, secretary; Oswald Hesterman, secretary home service section.

   With the depletion of the supply of pine timber, which was formerly the basis of Merrill's industrial life, a wide diversity of manufacturing enterprises have sprung up and everything from machinery to ladies' house dresses is now produced. The Merrill Machinery and Supply Company was organized as the Merrill Iron Works by John O'Day, John Daley, and William Geshart in 1900. The busi-ness was incorporated for $25,000 and was later taken over from Charles Groenke by Elmer Burr. A foundry and machine shop were operated at that time, doing repairing for saw mills and factories. In 1912 John O'Day sold the plant to George Shupert and H. B. Richmond, and in 1914 George Shupert sold his interest to H. H. Patzer. Present officers: F. E. Taylor, president and manager. The vice president is John H. Hieb and the secretary and treasurer W. J. Tesch. The plant manufactures excelsior machinery, pole and drag saws and does a general repair and contract business, employing about 25 men. The product is sold in Lincoln County and the northeast part of the state generally, to saw mills and paper mills. Otto Bergman, superintendent of the plant, is a designer and builder of machinery.

   The Merrill Handle Company was started by John H. Hieb in 1915 for the purpose of manufacturing boxes and was run under this arrangement for about one year. It was then reorganized as the Hieb & Becker Box Co. and was operated as such until the plant was destroyed by fire in 1919. A new company was then organized, capitalized at $30,000, and was consolidated with the Northern Wood Products Co. This consolidation continued for about a year and a half, when Mr. Hieb sold his interests in the Northern Wood Products Co. and bought their interests in the local company; the capitalization of the Merrill company was then increased to $100,000 and it was organized as the Merrill Handle Co., with John H. Hieb as president and manager, Mrs. John H. Hieb vice president, and E. J. Hieb secretary and treasurer. The plant is quite an extensive one, covering seven acres and employing about 50 men. The main building is 110x150; there is a store house 100x140 and another warehouse 100x108, a boiler house and an office building. The product consists of mop handles, dowels, broom handles, washing machine parts, special boxes, and a great variety of wood specialties.

   The Lincoln Box Company was organized in January of 1914 and turned out its first product in July of the same year. Its first officers were: John G. Wenzel, president; R. C. Hackbarth, vice president; and George Misterek, secretary and treasurer. The capitalization was $25,000. A. A. Wenzel entered the company as secretary and manager in 1916 and at the time of the reorganization after the death of his father, John G. Wenzel in June of 1920, he was made president and manager. In addition to Mr. Wenzel the present officers are: A. W. Doepke, vice president; and H. I. Wenzel secretary and treasurer. The company's plant is a thoroughly modern industrial institution, with scientific lighting and ventilation, dressing and rest rooms, spring water and other conveniences. About 70 people are employed. A steam plant run in connection generates power for the factory. From 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 feet of logs per year are used in the manufacture of cheese boxes, which are sold in Wisconsin and nearby states, and wire-end butter dishes, which have a national distribution.

   The Lincoln Canning Company was organized Jan. 12,1920, by Henry B. Bab-bitt, A. H. Cole, and George A. Foster. The capitalization is $100,000. George A. Foster is president, H. H. Heineman vice president, and H. B. Babbitt secretary and manager. Building operations were started in February of 1920 and completed in time to can a small crop of peas that year. The main building is 42x84 feet in dimensions and is three stories high. The engine room is 24x36, the boiler room 36x36, the cooking room 36x36, and the warehouse 70x210. In 1920 the company had 275 acres of peas under contract; in 1922 there were 1001 acres, and in 1923 the acreage will be about 1600. The output of the factory in 1920 was 32,000 cases and in 1922, 71,000 cases were canned. There are nine vining stations centrally located. The whole equipment is of the latest design. During the can-ning season about 90 people are given employment.

   The Merrill Excelsior Company was begun about 1900 by Jacobi & Barber, and was the first mill of this nature to be established in this section of the country. In 1916 Israel Malsin gave up a prosperous merchandise business at Irma to buy the plant and since that time he has been its owner. The mill has sixteen upright excelsior machines with a capacity of about eight tons per day and employs eleven people.

   The Lincoln Knitting Company was founded and incorporated in 1919, the capitalization being for $25,000. The incorporators were: Paul W. Leopold, Emil Semling and E. W. Schield. Shortly afterward Mr. Semling and Mr. Schield sold their interests and H. Helstein and John F. Topel entered the company. The present officers are: Paul W. Leopold, president, treasurer, and manager; H. Helstein, vice president, and John F. Topel, secretary.

   The Merrill Glove, Mitten & Tanning Company began in 1900 as a private concern under the ownership of Robert Kurtz. It was so operated until March 1, 1922, when it was incorporated under the Wisconsin laws with $15,000 capitaliza-tion, of which $9,000 was paid up stock. Under this organization Mr. Kurtz is president, his wife vice president, and his daughter secretary and treasurer. The plant operates along the lines indicated in the title of the company, tanning some shoe leather in addition to that used in the manufacture of gloves and mittens. The tannery has a capacity of 40 sides per day and employs three men and three women. Heavy gloves and mittens for working and driving are manufactured almost exclusively and are sold to jobbers and, to a small extent, to retailers. The glove factory is equipped with a cutting machine and eight electrically driven sewing machines; it employs three girls and has a capacity of 160 pairs per nine-hour day.

   The Ewing-Everest Pulp Company was formed in October of 1916 by the following three partners: M. C. Ewing, formerly manager and secretary of the Wisconsin Valley Electric Co.; D. C. Everest, of Wausau; and George P. Ewing, of Merrill. The company suffered a severe loss in the death of M. C. Ewing Aug. 10, 1922. D. C. Everest is now manager and secretary of the 'Marathon Paper Mills Co. of Rothschild, Wis., and George P. Ewing is manager of the Ewing- Everest Pulp Co. The company was organized for the purpose of taking over the ground wood pulp mill built in 1904 by the Lindauer Pulp and Manufacturing Co., of which Luther Lindauer was president. The mill was sold with a portion of the water power rights to the Wisconsin Valley Electric Co. in 1915. The product is ground wood pulp, which is sold to paper mills in Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The principal raw material is spruce pulpwood, which is shipped in from points in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. About 35 men are employed in the mill.

Chapter IX continued on next page Part E

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